University of Guelph, Canada, Canada
Effectiveness of choline and betaine in improving lipid homeostasis and systemic energy metabolism
Marica Bakovic is a Professor in the Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences at the University of Guelph. Dr. Bakovic has lasting interests in choline and phospholipids, especially in the molecular regulation of membrane transport and lipid metabolism. Her interests include the regulation of metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia. By disruption of the key regulatory gene involved in phospholipid formation Pcyt2, an ethanolamine cytidylyltransferase, her group established a strong link between membrane disfunction, ageing and development of obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension a well-known characteristics of metabolic syndrome. Dr. Bakovic areas of expertise include genomic and non-genomic regulation of metabolism with specific emphasis on regulatory pathways and molecular networks linking the membrane function with methyl-group metabolism and gene methylation. Her work on nutrient transport include characterization of choline transporter for phospholipid synthesis with emerging group of membrane and mitochondrial transporters from the choline transporter-like family SLC44A/CTL.
Cholineplays a critical role in systemic lipid metabolism andlimited choline supply inhibits lipoprotein secretion and causes development of non-alcoholic liver disease1. Under conditions of perturbed membrane phospholipid formation caused by a heterozygous deletion ofthe mousePcyt2gene (ETKOmice), cholinesupplementation reduces adiposity,restoresmembrane function and muscle insulin signaling2,3.Similarly to choline, betainesupplementation stimulates adipocyte lipolysis and inhibits fatty acid formationby lipogenesis4. Choline as well se betaine stimulate mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation genes and reducethe expression of fatty acid lipogenic genes3-4. Oxidation of choline to betaine and donation of methyl groups to theone-carbon methionine pathway strongly depends on choline and betaine availability.Our studies demonstrate thatcholine and betaine supplementation stimulates energy metabolism by participation in the mitochondrialoxidative demethylation pathway4. Plasma metabolomic profiling revealed systemic changes caused by choline and betaine supplementationunder condition of obesity. They both caused increased lipolysis (glycerol accumulation) and reduced sarcosine, taurine, acetate, andβ-hydroxybutyrate levels. They effected different steps in the citric acid cycle. Choline increased succinic acid while reducing brunched-chain amino acid levels, while betaine increased α-ketoglutaric acid and increased histidine and alanine levels,the specific biomarkers for betaine treatment. These data provide novel information on how choline and betaine supplementation can aid in treatment of obesity related disorders due to their mitochondrial oxidative degradation and demethylation in mitochondria
Johnson & Wales University, USA, USA
Fueling the Athlete
After graduating from Johnson & Wales with a BS in Culinary Nutrition, Jonathan Poyourow honed his Dietitian skills first as an intern in the US Army Dietetic Internship then with multiple appointments as a staff dietitian in various military hospitals across the country. He then entered the realm of sports nutrition working with not only the US Army Ranger Battalion but also as the Division Dietitian to the 101st Airborne Division here in the US as well as in a deployed setting to Afghanistan for a year. After returning to stateside he then started to pursue his master’s degree in health and wellness from Liberty University while also completing the requirements for his Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist certification. Jonathan has been teaching multiple classes at Johnson & Wales University for 5+ years and is a consulting Chef/RD to various professional and top tier collegiate sports programs across the country.
The field of sports nutrition and athletic performance cuisine is a rigorous and dynamic one. As a Chef Dietitian we must masteracademic core competencies in exercise physiology, psychology, integrated metabolism and biochemistry in addition to being well versed in all basic and advanced culinary techniques and flavor profiles. These are just the initial parameters for a successful career in this highly charged yet wildly rewarding field of practice. In addition to the academic fundamentals, it is imperative that sports dietitians and performance chefs understand the sport in which our clientele participate. This sport specific understanding enables the practitioner to focus upon, and educatethe athlete as to, proper fuel utilization, guided by their understanding of the proper mechanics of movement/athletic training as well as the psychological processes that can motivate the participant to perform optimally.
Sports nutrition as a field has grown substantially over the past 50 years, from big pasta dinners the night before a race for “carbohydrate loading” to today’s scientifically validated ergogenic aids and the world of nutrigenomics. The last ten years has seen the largest advancement of sports nutrition, with the following areas driving much of the research: the effects of exercise on protein utilization andproper meal timing to maximize the anabolic response. We are in an era of unprecedented growth and the new knowledge, which is constantly evolving, can assist in combating the misinformation so often found on the internet and in locker rooms.This in turn is helping to produce ever-improving performances by athletes in all areas of sport and exercise.
Bastyr University , USA
Evaluation of Nutritional Value, Environmental Impact and Consumer Acceptance of Food Products Containing Edible Insects
Alexandra Kazaks is a professor at Bastyr University, Seattle Washington. She received a doctorate in Nutritional Biology from the University of California, Davis. Her research has extended to the effects of physical activity and plant-based foods on weight management and vascular disease risk factors, dietary supplements, and micronutrients. Her published works include numerous journal articles, book chapters, and books on micronutrients, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Dr. Kazaks is a frequent speaker both in the US and internationally on these topics.
While considering the environmental sustainability of our food supply it is valuable to focus on edible insects that are efficient, prolific, resistant to drought, and produce lower levels of greenhouse gases than animals. Mealworms, in particular, have potential nutritional and environmental benefits. Insect consumption is uncommon in Western cultures as most people are repelled at the thought of eating insects. Incorporating insects in familiar foods may help overcome this food neophobia.
The objectives of this study wereto determine the nutritional profile of mealworms and whether processed mealworms are an acceptable protein source for consumers and to evaluate the relationships between acceptance of mealworms as a protein source and physical activity, food-related attitudes, and socio-demographic characteristics.We also evaluated nutrition professionals’ knowledge, experience and recommendations regarding edible insects.
Fatty acid profile and nutritional content of frozen and freeze-dried meal worm samples was determined by an AOAC International Guidelinescertified lab. Consumer information from adults throughout US was gathered by a questionnaire disseminated via social media while another elicited opinions and recommendations from nutrition professionals. Data was analysed using SPSS.
Dried mealworm powder (100g) provided 491 Kcal; 48% protein; 12% carbohydrate and 27% fat (MUFA highest). A wide range of micronutrients including 961 mg potassium make this a nutrient-dense food. Consumer responses indicated 37% who previously consumed insects showed higher willingness to buy (WTB) mealworm products (t=5.088(125), p<0.0001). Participation in a range of physical activities was associated with high levels of WTB. The most appealing forms of mealworm protein were protein bars and restaurant dishes. Of 316 nutrition professionals, 18% had previously consumed insects, 10% were familiar with nutrition content of commonly eaten insects, and 61% would recommend insects.
Study results may aid in development of nutrient-dense products that meet consumer demand and promote increased interest in sustainable protein sources.
Cape Peninsula University. , South Africa
The nutritional status of fodder trees influencing browsing behaviour of indigenousgoats performance in the semi-arid region of South Africa.
Food Nutrition and Science Researcher
South Africa is quite very rich country with vast numbers of indigenous such as boer goat, Toggerburger,Boar goat , Xhosa looped ears raised under smallholder farming system. Various studies have indicated that most fodder trees can be used to supplement livestock during times extreme drought conditions, however the nutritional status onfodder trees and its impact on livestock productivity has not be profoundly documented. Generally, So many fodder trees found in South Africa has been in the past as ethno veterinary medical and commonly known to poses characteristics such some pharmalogicalcharacterises in controlling endosparasites such roundworms, tapeworms in small ruminant .The main of this study is critical review the nutritive value and differences that exist on physiochemical properties of foddertrees and its impact on livestock performance species utilized have any differences in anti-nutritional factors (ANF) any differences on forage quality utilized as browsing material by South African indigenous Goats
University of Tennessee-Chattanooga, USA, USA
Nutrition Education Program through the Farmer’s Market: An Update
Dr. Amir Alakaam is an Associate Professor in Nutrition and a Registered Dietitian in United States. Dr. Alakaam has over six years of clinical experience as a physician in family medicine and general surgery, and seven years of teaching and research experience in the area of nutrition and public health at university level. Dr. Alakaam has served as a book reviewer, invited journal reviewer for numerous peer reviewed journals, and a professional member of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Public Health Association, American Diabetes Association, and other national and states associations.
His research interests focus on using the concepts of the Socio-Ecological Model to address health and nutrition needs of marginal populations. He is also interested in the research related to breastfeeding’s policies and practices in the U.S. hospitals, and eating habits of international students and immigrants in the U.S. His publication appeared in several journals such as Journal of Epidemiological Research, Journal of Human Lactation, Journal of International Students, and AIMS Public Health.
In North Dakota, United States (ND), cardiovascular disease and cancer are the leading cause of death, and there are more than 1,2000 cases of death due to heart disease every year; and at least nine individuals are diagnosed with cancer every day. Studies have showed that healthy food choices such as increase fruits and vegetables intakes have a protective role in chronic disease and obesity prevention (Oyebode et al., 2014). Research organizations established nutrition education programs to reduce obesity and chronic disease risk factors by providing accurate nutrition facts that make healthy food options available, accessible, and affordable (CDC, 2016; USDA, 2017). Nutrition education has been proven to be effective in increasing purchase of fruits, vegetables, and whole grain items. Given ND’s high obesity and chronic disease rates, and limited knowledge on effective interventions; the goals of this program were to (a) reinforce the value of choosing fruits and vegetables; (b) improve individual’s knowledge on the recommended serving size; and (c) develop healthy skills related to food purchasing.
Nutrition education research program based on the Socio-Ecological Model was delivered through the farmer’s market in ND. We administrate nutrition education sessions focus on the importance of fruits and vegetables on diet and healthy eating behavior. The sessions consist of a series of food demonstration and handouts about healthy food options explained by a Licensed Nutritionist. Data collected through questionnaire and was administrated in the end of the session. Nutrition intervention through farmers’ market are a potential effective strategy to improve eating habits and nutritional status in ND.
LORMA Colleges , Philippines
FEED THE HUNGRY: SCHOOL-BASED FEEDING PROGRAMS THROUGH THE LENS OF URBIZTONDO ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IN PANICSICAN, SAN JUAN, LA UNION
Aaron Tucay. He is 18 years old and was born on March 5, 2001. He lives in Sampaguita Street, Barangay San Vicente, San Fernando City, La Union. He is the son of Mr. Samuel Tucay and Mrs. Annelyn Tucay. He is currently studying at LORMA Colleges as a Grade 12 student.
Malnutrition is a worldwide health concern. Government and non-government organization geared their efforts in various interventions that could lessen and alleviate children’s suffering from malnutrition through the implementation of School-Based Feeding Program. However, the implementation of School-Based Feeding Program must also have specific procedures and standards in order to implement the program effectively. The study aims to determine the specific procedures of the School-Based Feeding Program, the significant impact of the lived experiences and challenges in implementing the school-based feeding program, and how will they ensure that beneficiaries will meet the implementation goals of the program. The descriptive-phenomenological design was utilized in the study and the participants were chosen through convenience sampling. An adapted questionnaire and semi-structured interview are the instrument’s used in the study, and thematic analysis was used to analyze and interpret the data. The study revealed that the implementation of school-based feeding program in Urbiztondo Elementary School, Panicsican, San Juan, La Union showed high attainment of the school-based feeding program goals particularly 9 out of 13 of the severely wasted were rehabilitated to normal nutritional status and the attendance of the pupils are significantly improved. Attainment of improving the children’s health and nutrition values and behavior is also generally high. However, very satisfactory in its personnel performance, adequate in its financial, delayed release of budget for feeding, inability of teachers and parents to prepare the foods regularly for school-based feeding program, additional work in buying commodities, dislike of some pupil beneficiaries of vegetables. Thus, a proposed action plan was formulated to enhance the implementation of the school-based feeding program in Urbiztondo Elementary School.
Central Michigan University, Central Michigan University, USA
The role of vitamin D as a negative regulator of mTOR in basal cell carcinoma
Rawia Khasawneh is an Assistant professor in the program of Food and Nutritional Sciences at Central Michigan University, Michigan, USA. Her expertise is in nutritional molecular biology with emphasis on in nutrigenomics and carcinogenesis. Her research interest is focused on the role of vitamin D metabolism on the progression of non-melanoma skin cancer.
The relationship between vitamin D and non-melanoma skin cancer is not clear. Epidemiological studies are inconsistent and inconclusive, and mechanistic studies are lacking. It has been suggested that vitamin D possesses anti-proliferative and pro- differentiation effects by negatively regulating key signaling pathways through its nuclear receptor (VRD), that is a nuclear transcription factor. In particular, VDR target gene REDD1 (regulated in development and DNA damage response 1) inhibits mTOR pathway, thus impacting cellulargrowth.
Our study aimed to explore the role of vitamin D on the onset, progression and possibly treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Three tissue samples were collected from 20 BCC patients (Cancer, Proximal, and Distal), and one sample from 6 cancer-free individuals. BCC and its feeding cells seemed to up-regulate vitamin D activation enzymes, VDR, and its co-activators, thus proposing higher local activity of vitamin D. Despite the significantly increased protein levels of REDD1 in the cancer tissue, our data showed that VDR’s ability to down-regulate mTOR pathway through REDD1 was diminished. Interestingly, Vitamin D negative regulation of Hedgehog-Gli pathway was also lost in BCC tissue, and kRas mutation was detected. In conclusion, we propose that the anticipated role of vitamin D is not conserved in BCC.
Diego De Castro Salau
Dietitian and nutritional coach, Spain
Skin anti-aging diet
Diego De Castro is dedicated to helping motivated people to generate new habits that allow them to improve their quality of life and overall health. His 7 years of experience in consulting and his training in nutritional coaching have helped him to implement increasingly effective techniques aimed to effectively help individuals and groups reach their health and well being goals. He is an active lecturer and professor in several courses and workshops throughout Spain. He is co-creator of a successful program designed to help hypothyroidism patients relieve their symptoms. He also collaborates with a well-known food brand in the development of anti-aging and anti-inflammatory food formulas. Diego is known to be a good communicator and does so in his own blog at diegodecastro.es and as a guest writer in health and news blogs.
Introduction: The skin, the body's largest organ and primary defense barrier, is permanently exposed to both exogenous and endogenous skin deteriorating agents (SDA) such as oxidative damage, inflammation, immune dysfunction, homeostatic imbalance and photoaging. The repetitive and exacerbated action of these factors can lead to deterioration and premature aging of the skin favored by the appearance of spots, wrinkles, a poor regeneration of collagen, redness, acne and other disorders.
Objectives:to determine which are the micronutrients (vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients), foods and combinations thereof that can help reduce the damage of ADPs that cause aging.
Search methodology: a literature review of the main databases (Cochrane, Prospero, Health evidence, Scielo, Pubmed and Scopus) has been carried out.
Findings: There are certain micronutrients that in specific foods are in sufficient concentration to significantly reduce the action of ADP if consumed with adequate frequency and quantity. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are able to increase flexibility and hydration and reduce skin inflammation by providing protection against ultraviolet (UV) rays. Vitamin E in adequate doses proved to be the largest antioxidant defender for the skin offering protection against inflammation. Zn has been shown to favor skin regeneration and regulate inflammation. Vitamin C in addition to providing antioxidant protection, proves to be essential for the renewal of collagen structures. Carotenoids offer great antioxidant and UV protection. There are also foods such as cocoa, green tea and turmeric among others that offer great protection against ADP if taken adequately.
Conclusion:carrying out a proper, balanced diet rich in certain food sources of these vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients can offer tangible protection against ADP and visibly reduce the signs of skin aging.
Dietitian and Nutritionist, Spain
Role of micronutrition in hypothyroidism caused by autoimmune thyroiditis or Hashimoto
Montserrat Reus (BSc, MSc) is an experienced Dietitian and Nutritionist. She is devoted to created new instruments to change hypothyroidism patients' life. Motivated to empower people who suffer from thyroid disease, she has co-created the Reshape method for hypothyroid conditions. An online course that helps patients to recover health, with lifestyle changes on anti-inflammatory nutrition, adapted exercises, meditation, and knowledge on the root causes of hypothyroidism. Montserrat develops her professional career in private consultancy, research, and training activities for professionals and patients.
Introduction: Hashimoto autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in iodine sufficiency areas.It is caused by chronic inflammation of the gland, due to lymphocyte infiltration, which causes its hypofunction. Thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of most organic functions. The transformation of the hormone T4 to the active cellular form T3 depends on the action of deiodinases (DIO). For the adequate production and activity of DIOs and thyroid hormones, the participation of several micronutrients is necessary.
Objectives: Determine what type of relationship exists between the status of several micronutrients and the AIT, and whether their supplementation can improve both hormonal values and symptomatology of patients.
Search methodology: A literary literature review of the main databases (Cochrane, Prospero, Health evidence, Scielo, Pubmed and Scopus) has been carried out.
Results: The micronutrients on which there is greater evidence of its effect on thyroid metabolism are iodine and selenium. Both must be at their optimum value. The immunomodulatory capacity of vitamin D and inositol is promising in compensating for the autoimmune imbalance. A good status of iron and vitamins B12 and B9 are crucial for the prevention of anemias and hyperhomocysteinemia, very common comorbidities. A good level of antioxidant vitamins (A, C, E) and magnesium confer protective capacity against oxidative stress. This is exacerbated given the chronic inflammatory context of the gland.
Conclusions: Current evidence points to a key role of micronutrition in the AIT, with many aspects still to be elucidated. The existing challenges are, both the concretion of the most adequate supplementation (dosage, duration of treatment, presentation formula); as well as the understanding of the enormous complexity of existing synergies.
Marina Sala Martín
Nutritionist and Neuropathic Dietitian, Spain
We are not what we eat, we are what we absorb
Marina Sala Martín, nutritionist and neuropathic dietitian MTC did her studies in Barcelona, where she began working in a herbalist's office with nutrition consultancy and leading diabetes groups. She travelled to Italy to expand her knowledge in the psycho-emotional capo. In Rome, she worked as a therapist offering nutritional education conferences with private and external consultation in collaboration with other professionals in the sector. She also gave talks for pregnant women and mothers who are lactating, as well as some about child nutrition. In addition she attended intestinal disorders and overweight cases. She returned to Spain where she continued conducting nutrition conferences and working in pharmacies offering consultation. She also worked in health centers and a polyclinic where she currently leads the nutrition department of the “Clínica Image” attending the pre and post-operative.
There are different factors involved in intestinal absorption from biochemical processes, micro intestinal biotia, genetics, psycho-emotional terrain, genetic predisposition, intestine morphology and food combination among others.
The gut-brain axis is a bidirectional pathway that communicates the brain with the gastrointestinal system. Commensal bacteria of the gut can signal to the brain throw this axis formed by immune responses, vagus nerve, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), SCFA, enteroendocrine signalling and tryptophan metabolism. Throw all these pathways the gut microbiota can influence the nervous central system (NCS) altering the neurotransmission and the behaviour. Disbiosis has been detected in several neuropsychiatric
The central nervous system is interconnected to our digestive system, so it is not only of importance what we eat but also how we eat it. The bio-psycho-sociological conditions that surround our meals, the attitude we take towards food, the companions with who we share our meals or the mindset in our meal elaboration process should not be undervalued.
Nowadays we are focused on what we eat and not on how we eat it, and the how is a matter worth dealing with. We think about components that we know are harmful and we believe that if we remove this or that our diet will improve. We follow false myths, we extoll some food, we despise others and we fall into trends due to these tremendous confusions. In my talk I intend to put a little light to this matter because i believe there is no such thing as a magic food product but we can optimise our digestion and not settle for pseudo products which often offer lower nutritional value and yet are more expensive and end up being harmful.
Egerton University, Kenya
Effect of a multi-strain probiotic on growth performance, haematobiochemistry, carcass and meat quality traits of Potchefstroom koekoek
Will be updated shortly
Whereas the use of probiotics is commonplace in commercial production of improved chicken strains, little is known about the impact of these live microbial feed additives in indigenous chickens. The study investigated the effect of a multi-strain probiotic (1.4 × 108 cfu/mL), administered via drinking water on growth performance, blood parameters and carcass and meat quality characteristics of Potchefstroom koekoek cockerels for a period of 12 weeks. A total of 140, 65-week old cockerels were randomly allocated to four experimental diets formulated to have similar caloric and protein levels as follows: 1. negative control diet (NEGCONCON; commercial chicken growers’ diet without both antibiotics and probiotics in the water, 2. positive control diet (POSCONANTIB; commercial chicken growers’ diet with antibiotics [coxistac&olaquindox] but no probiotics), 3. Negative control diet plus 2.5 mL of probiotics per litre of water (PROB25) and 4. negative control with 5.0 mL of probiotics per litre of water (PROB50). The cockerels had access to water and feedad libitum. Average weekly feed intake (AWFI) and average weekly weight gain (AWG) were used to determine feed conversion efficiency (FCE). A week before slaughter, blood was collected to determine haematological and serum biochemical parameters. Carcass and meatquality parameters were measured after slaughter. There was a significant week × diet interaction effect on average weekly feed conversion efficiency. At the age of 9 weeks old, cockerels in PROB50 had higher FCE than those in CON and ANTIB groups. However, 14-weeks old cockerels in PROB50 had lower FCE than those in ANTIB. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on overall feed intake, overall weight gain and haemato-biochemical parameters of cockerels. There were no dietary effects in terms of gizzard and spleen weightswere similar in cockerels in PROB50, CON and PROB25 cockerels. Cockerels in PROB50 had shorter small intestines than those in CON and PROB25, which did not differ. Treatment PROB50 promoted larger breast weights than PROB25. Treatments ANTIB andPROB50 promoted greater wing and thigh weights than CON and PROB25, which did not differ. There were no significant differences among shank weights were similar of cockerels in PROB50, CON and ANTIB cockerels. Cockerels in treatments meat pH measured after 24hours was highest in CON and ANTIB birds had the highest pH measured after 24 h followed by those in PROBO25 and lastly those in PROB50 birds. Cockerels in CON cockerels had lower cooking losses than those in ANTIB, PROB25 and PROB50 cockerels, which did notdiffer.Dietary treatments had no significant effect on overall feed intake and overall weightgain. There were no significant differences in terms of FCE across all weeks, except in weeks 9 and 14 of the feeding period. Probiotic supplementation had no significant effect on bloodparameters and the size of internal organs, except for small intestines. Cockerels on PROB50had shorter small intestines compared to those on NEGCON and PROB25, which did not differ. Treatments had no significant influence on carcass characteristics, except on weights of breasts, wings and thighs. Probiotic supplementation had no significant effect on meat colour and meat tenderness, but significantly influenced meat pH and cooking losses. Cockerels on both NEGCON and POSCON had the highest pH measured 24 h after slaughter. Cockerels on NEGCON had the least cooking losses (19.84%) compared to those on POSCON, PROB25 and PROB50, which did not differ. It was, therefore, concluded that probiotic supplementation has a potential to replace antibiotics on diets of Potchefstroom koekoek cockerels. Probiotics supplementation can be used in place of prophylactic antibiotics in Potchefstroom koekoek cockerels.
Saad Sabbar Dahham
Rustaq college, Oman
Biological activity and chemical composition of Iraqi black truffle Terfeziaclaveryi
Will be updated shortly
Desert truffles are seasonal and important edible fungi that grow wild in many countries around the world. Truffles are natural food sources that have significant compositions. In this work, the antioxidant, chemical composition, anticancer, and antiangiogenesis properties of the Terfeziaclaveryi truffle were investigated. Solvent extractions of the T. claveryi were evaluated for antioxidant activities using (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods). The extracts cytotoxicity on the cancer cell lines (HT29, MCF-7, PC3 and U-87 MG) was determined by MTT assay, while the anti-angiogenic efficacy was tested using ex-vivo assay. All extracts showed moderate anticancer activities against all cancer cells (p < 0.05). The hexane extract inhibited the brain cell line (U-87 MG) with an IC50 of 50 μg/ml and significantly promoted cell apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway and DNA fragmentation p < 0.001. The ethanol extract demonstrated potent antioxidants; DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS with an IC50 value of 52, 48.5 and 64.7 μg/ml, respectively. In addition, the hexane and ethyl acetate extract significantly (p < 0.001) inhibited the sprouting of microvessels by 100% and 81.2%, at 100 μg/ml, respectively. The GC analysis of the most active extract (hexane) showed the presence of several potent phytochemicals such as stigmasterol, beta-Sitosterol, squalene, lupeol, octadecadienoic acid, and oleic acid.
University of Agriculture, Pakistan
Food for life: Challenges and future perspectives
Will be updated shortly
Food insecurity, hunger and malnutrition (under nutrition and over nutrition) are global issues leading to increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Food is essential to drive away hunger and malnutrition. It gives us the required energy and sufficient nutrients to grow and develop to be healthy and energetic, to move around, work, exercise, play, think and learn. First 1000 days of life should be of the key priority for researchers and Government as this the most crucial stage of a person’s life. Changes occurred in this period are irreversible and sustains to whole life. Cognitive development is closely linked to the dietary practices of mother during pregnancy, breastfeeding and weaning practices. Changes in dietary patterns and life style modifications have tremendously increased the incidence of non-communicable diseases. Nutritional and hygiene awareness among general public can be helpful in reversing the situation. Selection of better food choices and best utilization of available resources can ensure the nutrition as well as food security. Public health care sector, nutraceutical, food industries, print and electronic media can collectively work for the betterment of the situation.